All NASA Videos

7 Facts About NASA's New Horizons Pluto Mission
NASA's New Horizons was launched on January 19, 2006 from Cape Canaveral. It is on a mission of performing flybys of the Pluto system and one or more other Kuiper belt objects (KBOs).

50 Years of Exploration- The Golden Anniversary of NASA
NASA has been exploring our solar system and beyond since 1958.

A Journey of Light Through Space and Time
This artist's animation depicts the 'life' of a photon, or particle of light, as it travels across space and time, from the very early universe to the Planck satellite. By creating maps of the oldest light in the universe, Planck scientists are learning about the epic journey of light through the cosmos. The mission's maps showing this ancient light, called the cosmic microwave background, have revealed the most precise information yet about the universe's fundamental traits, such as its age, contents and the seeds of all structure, without which we would not exist.

A Look Back at the Montreal Protocol
The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer. This video takes a look back at how scientists, industry leaders, and policy makers came together to regulate CFCs.

A Multi-Wavelength View of Radio Galaxy Hercules-A
Spectacular jets powered by the gravitational energy of a supermassive black hole in the core of the elliptical galaxy Hercules A illustrate the combined imaging power of two of astronomy's cutting-edge tools, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3, and the recently upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Credit: NASA, ESA, S. Baum and C. O'Dea (RIT), R. Perley and W. Cotton (NRAO/AUI/NSF), and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

A Narrated Tour of the Moon
Although the moon has remained largely unchanged during human history, our understanding of it and how it has evolved over time has evolved dramatically. Thanks to new measurements, we have new and unprecedented views of its surface, along with new insight into how it and other rocky planets in our solar system came to look the way they do. See some of the sights and learn more here!

Alan Shepard - Ambassador of Exploration
On May 5, 1961, Mercury astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. made history, becoming the first American in space with a 15-minute suborbital flight in his Freedom 7 capsule.

Alan Shepard Hits A Golf Ball on the Moon
Apollo 14 Commander and original Mercury astronaut Alan Shepard, the first American to fly in space, tees off on the lunar surface during his 1971 mission, with crewmate Edgar Mitchell watching and capcom Fred Haise commenting from Mission Control. Shepard said the ball went 'miles and miles.'

Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 institutes from 16 countries and organized under United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. The AMS Experiment will use the unique environment of space to advance knowledge of the universe and lead to the understanding of the universe’s origin. The AMS is a high profile space-based particle physics experiment that is led by Nobel laureate Samuel Ting of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

american airways
Graphically depicts air traffic over the continental US for ane day.

America's First 'First' in Space
On Dec. 14, 1962, NASA's Mariner 2 spacecraft flew by Venus, making the United States the first country to complete a successful mission to another planet.

America's New Paths in Space
A half century since it launched the first American to orbit, NASA has begun a new era of space exploration, embarking on two parallel paths of future spaceflight.

An Island Made of Ice
This time-lapse video shows the calving of an ice island from Greenland's Petermann Glacier and the drifting of the ice down the fjord and southward through Nares Strait. The images were captured between July 9 and September 13, 2012, by NASA's Terra and Aqua earth-observing satellites. This is the second time in three years that a city-sized hunk of ice has ripped off from the glacier.

Anatomy of a CME
Animation depicts a coronal mass ejection, an explosion of the Sun's atmosphere than can affect satellites, cell phones, and other aspects of life on Earth.

Andromeda Galaxy's Double Nucleus
This zoom dives deep into the nucleus of the neighboring spiral galaxy M31, also known as the Andromeda galaxy. The sequence begins with a backyard constellation view and ends with the new Hubble Space Telescope image that centers on the 100-million-solar-mass black hole at the core of the galaxy and the young blue stars surrounding the black hole. This is the sharpest visible-light image ever made of the nucleus of an external galaxy. Astronomers are trying to understand how apparently young stars were formed so deep inside the black hole's gravitational grip and how they survive in an extreme environment. Credit: NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI) TRT: 26 sec

Aquarius- One Year Observing the Salty Seas
This video provides a global tour of sea surface salinity using measurements taken by NASA’s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red represents areas of high salinity, while blue represents areas of low salinity. Aquarius is a focused effort to measure sea surface salinity and will provide the global view of salinity variability needed for climate studies. The mission is a collaboration between NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales).

apollo 8 christmas 1968 message
The famous Christmas message from the Moon given by the Apollo 8 crew.

Apollo 11 Landing Profile
The approach and landing of Apollo 11 has been reconstructed using data from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Video Courtesy of GoneToPlaid.

Apollo 13 Damage
This video of the severely damaged Apollo 13 service module was taken by the crew after it was jettisoned. An entire panel on the service module was blown away by the explosion of oxygen tank number two. Astronauts Jim Lovell, Fred Haise and Jack Swigert used the lunar module as a lifeboat and returned safely to Earth.

Apollo 15 Proves Galileo Correct
At the end of the last Apollo 15 moon walk, Commander David Scott held out a geologic hammer and a feather and dropped them at the same time. Because they were essentially in a vacuum, there was no air resistance and the feather fell at the same rate as the hammer, as Galileo had concluded hundreds of years before.

Apollo 17 Leaves the Moon
Astronauts Gene Cernan and Jack Schmitt blast off in the lunar module's ascent stage after wrapping up the last of the Apollo lunar landing missions.

Aqua CERES- Tracking Earth's Heat Balance
Is the heat budget of the planet changing? Thermometers on the ground can give us a snapshot of a summer heatwave or winter cold spell, but it takes something like NASA's CERES instruments to give a long term picture of whether the planet is keeping more of its heat than it loses back into space.

Archival Footage- John Glenn's Mercury Flight
Archival films document John Glenn's historic Feb. 20, 1962 Mercury flight in his Friendship 7, in which he became the first American to orbit the Earth. Clips include boarding the capsule, splashdown and recovery, and receiving an award from President Kennedy.

Asteroid 2012 DA14 Flight Path
A narrated animation depicting the trajectory of asteroid 2012 DA14 as it travels within the Earth-moon system on Feb. 15, 2013.

Asteroid 2012 DA14 To Whiz Past Earth Safely
The small near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 will pass very close to Earth on Feb. 15, 2013. Asteroid 2012 DA14 will be closest to Earth at about 11:24 a.m. PST (2:24 p.m. EST and 1924 UTC), on Feb. 15, when it will be at a distance of about 27,700 kilometers (17,200 miles) above Earth's surface. NASA's Near-Earth Object Program Office can accurately predict the asteroid's path with the observations obtained, and it is therefore known that there is no chance that the asteroid might be on a collision course with Earth. Nevertheless, the flyby will provide a unique opportunity for researchers to study a near-Earth object up close.

Astronaut John Young's Career
John Young served as a NASA astronaut for over four decades, flying on Gemini, Apollo and the Space Shuttle. He walked on the moon during Apollo 16 in 1972 and commanded the first shuttle mission, STS-1, in 1981.

Atlantis Retrospective
A retrospective look at space shuttle Atlantis.

Aurora 7 and Scott Carpenter
The second time America sent an astronaut in orbit around the Earth.

Best of 'Earth As Art' -- Top Five
Counting down the Top Five Earth images, as voted on by the public. Landsat has been collecting data of the Earth's surface since 1972. Some of the images are visually striking, and they have been selected for the 'Earth As Art' collection. These are the best.

Big Sunspot Remains Active
This is the sunspot region AR 1429 that has generated several major solar storms recently. The video covers nine days (Mar. 4 - 12, 2011). Notice how the spot continually changes as its magnetic fields realign themselves. The images are white light images called intensitygrams captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).

Birth of a Space Laser
A new laser, which will globally measure carbon dioxide from space, is due to be launched in 2023 on the ASCENDS mission. The main goal is to measure how much carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere and where it's located. Essentially, the laser will help scientists watch trees 'eat' and 'breathe.'

Black Hole Eats Star, Beams Signal to Earth
On March 28, 2011, NASA's Swift detected intense X-ray flares thought to be caused by a black hole devouring a star. In one model, illustrated here, a sun-like star on an eccentric orbit plunges too close to its galaxy's central black hole. About half of the star's mass feeds an accretion disk around the black hole, which in turn powers a particle jet that beams radiation toward Earth

Black Hole Hunter
A large number of galaxies are hiding black holes that we can't detect, and NASA's NuSTAR will use X-ray vision to find them.

Boiling Fluids Behave Quite Differently in Space
The boiling process is really different in space, since the vapor phase of a boiling liquid does not rise via buoyancy. Spacecraft and Earth-based systems use boiling to efficiently remove large amounts of heat by generating vapor from liquid. For example, many power plants use this process to generate electricity. An upper limit, called the critical heat flux, exists where the heater is covered with so much vapor that liquid supply to the heater begins to decrease. The goal of BXF-MABE is to determine the critical heat flux during boiling in microgravity. This will facilitate the optimal design of cooling systems on Earth, as well as in space exploration vehicles.

Bolden on Shuttles 30th Anniverary
Bolden discusses the Space Shuttle after 30 years.

Camping Out On An Asteroid
An astronaut and a geologist recently spent three days camping out as though they were on an asteroid. They were inside NASA's Space Exploration Vehicle prototype, flying it virtually in a digital environment as it was parked at the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center.

Cassini - 15 Years of Exploration
This video highlights sights and sounds from the journey of NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Cassini launched 15 years ago and has been exploring the Saturn system since 2004.

Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the help of the space shuttle, astronauts clarified Hubble's vision, then sharpened with ever-improving instruments.

Chandra Captures Neutron Star Action
This movie from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory shows a fast moving jet of particles produced by a rapidly rotating neutron star, and may provide new insight into the nature of some of the densest matter in the universe. The star of this movie is the Vela pulsar, a neutron star that was formed when a massive star collapsed. The Vela pulsar is about 1,000 light years from Earth, spansis about 12 miles in diameter, and makes over 11 complete rotations every second, faster than a helicopter rotor. As the pulsar whips around, it spews out a jet of charged particles that race out along the pulsar’s rotation axis at about 70% of the speed of light. In this still image from the movie, the location of the pulsar and the 0.7-light-year-long jet are labeled. The Chandra data shown in the movie, containing 8 images obtained between June and September 2010, suggest that the pulsar may be slowly wobbling, or precessing, as it spins. The shape and the motion of the Vela jet look strikingly like a ...

Colliding Galaxies Create Active Galactic Nuclei
This simulation follows the collision of two spiral galaxies that harbor giant black holes. The collision merges the black holes and stirs up gas in both galaxies. The merged black hole gorges on the feast and lights up, forming an active galactic nucleus called a quasar and creating a 'wind' that blows away much of the galaxy's gas.

Colliding Neutron Stars
Discussion of what happens when neutron stars collide.

Computer Model Shows a Disk Galaxy's Life History
This cosmological simulation follows the development of a single disk galaxy over about 13.5 billion years, from shortly after the Big Bang to the present time. Colors indicate old stars (red), young stars (white and bright blue) and the distribution of gas density (pale blue); the view is 300,000 light-years across. The simulation ran on the Pleiades supercomputer at NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., and required about 1 million CPU hours. It assumes a universe dominated by dark energy and dark matter. Credit: F. Governato and T. Quinn (Univ. of Washington), A. Brooks (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison), and J. Wadsley (McMaster Univ.).

Arm Movement for Taking a Self-Portrait
This animation shows how the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera at the end of the arm of NASA's Mars rover Curiosity was positioned for taking multiple images that were later combined into a self-portrait of the rover. The animation was made using software that rover planners use to design Curiosity's movements.

Curiosity Drills on Mars
NASA's Curiosity drills for first sample from inside a rock on Mars.

Curiosity Collects First Rock Sample
Curiosity rover obtains the first sample ever collected from the interior of a rock on another planet.

Curiosity Finds Calcium-Rich Deposits
NASA’s Curiosity rover finds calcium deposits on Mars similar to those seen on Earth when water circulates in cracks and rock fractures.

Curiosity Rover Gives Mars the Brush-Off
NASA's Curiosity rover dusts off a rock on Mars for the first time.

Curiosity Rover Hits Paydirt
Curiosity's analyzed rock sample proves ancient Mars could have supported living microbes.

Curiosity Shakes, Bakes, and Tastes Mars with SAM
NASA's Curiosity rover analyzed its first solid sample of Mars with a variety of instruments, including the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. Developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., SAM is a portable chemistry lab tucked inside the Curiosity rover. SAM examines the chemistry of samples it ingests, checking particularly for chemistry relevant to whether an environment can support or could have supported life. Learn more about how SAM processes a sample by watching this video!

Curiosity, The Stunt Double
Mars Science Lab mission's Curiosity rover is playing the role of stunt double for NASA astronauts, as it monitors radiation levels on its journey to Mars. Curiosity is equipped with a Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) which was turned on shortly after launch and is experiencing deep-space radiation storms in the same way that a real astronaut would.

Curiosity's Martian Holiday
Curiosity will spend the holidays at a location on Mars dubbed 'Grandma's House.'

Curiosity's Robotic Arm
This engineering drawing shows the location of the arm on NASA's Curiosity rover, in addition to the arm's turret, which holds two instruments and three tools. The arm places and holds turret-mounted tools on rock and soil targets. It also manipulates the sample-processing mechanisms on the 66-pound (30-kilogram) turret. The arm has five degrees of freedom of movement provided by rotary actuators known as the shoulder azimuth joint, shoulder elevation joint, elbow joint, wrist joint and turret joint.

Curiosity's Seven Minutes of Terror
Team members share the challenges of Curiosity's final minutes to landing on the surface of Mars.

Drilling into Mars
This animation of NASA's Curiosity rover shows the complicated suite of operations involved in conducting the rover's first rock sample drilling on Mars and transferring the sample to the rover's scoop for inspection. The drilling and sample transfer took place on Feb. 8 and 20, 2013, or sols 182 and 193, Curiosity's 182nd and 193rd Martian days of operations.

Dropping in on Mars in High-Res
This movie from NASA's Curiosity rover shows most of the high-resolution frames acquired by the Mars Descent Imager between the jettison of the heat shield and touchdown. The video, obtained on Aug. 5 PDT (Aug. 6 EDT), covers the last two-and-a-half minutes before touchdown in Gale Crater.

First CheMin Results
NASA's Curiosity rover gets its first taste of Mars and finds minerals: plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene and olivine.

First Rock Contact by Curiosity's Arm
This engineering animation depicts the moves that NASA's rover Curiosity made on Sept. 22, 2012, when the rover touched a Martian rock with its robotic arm for the first time. Curiosity examined the rock with instruments on the arm. This animation was made with the software that engineers used for planning the maneuver: Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program.

Flex, Zap, Roll
Curiosity performs a series of firsts this week -- flexing its arm, laser-zapping a rock and rolling on its wheels.

From Mars Curiosity to Times Square - Happy New Year
New Year's Eve revelers watching giant screens in New York's Times Square saw a special Happy New Year greeting from Mars, currently 206 million miles away.

Getting a Rover Ready for Launch
Engineers put the rover through thousands of hours of testing. They did drop tests; pull tests; drive tests; load tests, and many other tests to get Curiosity ready for launch. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Here's the Scoop
Curiosity shakes up a scoopful of dirt, dusts off the sampling system and investigates a shiny object on the surface of Mars.October 12th, 2012

How Do Rovers Drive on Mars?
The 'keys' to NASA's Mars rovers are in the capable hands of the official rover drivers. Learn how they operate the vehicles from millions of miles away in this 60-second video from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Landing Practice
Mars Science Laboratory engineers have a dress rehearsal for Curiosity's landing day on the Red Planet.

Living on Mars Time
NASA Curiosity flight director David Oh updates us on the rover and his family’s experience on Mars time.

Mars Rover Power
Curiosity is the biggest robot explorer ever to rove Mars. How do you power something like that?

Mars Soil Sample Delivered
NASA's Curiosity rover delivers its first soil sample to its chemistry and mineralogy instrument.

Mars Streambed
Curiosity science team member Sanjeev Gupta explains how rounded pebbles spotted by the rover are convincing evidence of an ancient streambed on Mars.

Martian Dune Buggy
NASA engineers take the Curiosity test rover to California's Mojave desert to learn how to drive on Martian sand dunes.

Mars’ Bygone Atmosphere
NASA’s Curiosity finds that the Red Planet doesn’t have the same atmosphere it used to.

Messages from Mars
Curiosity sends home special messages before heading onto the Martian plain towards her first target.

NASA Lands Car-sized Rover on Martian Surface
NASA's most advanced Mars rover Curiosity has landed on the Red Planet. The one-ton rover, hanging by ropes from a rocket backpack, touched down onto Mars Sunday to end a 36-week flight and begin a two-year investigation. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft that carried Curiosity succeeded in every step of the most complex landing ever attempted on Mars, including the final severing of the bridle cords and flyaway maneuver of the rocket backpack.

One Martian Moon Passes Another
This video depicts NASA's Curiosity rover observing Mars' two moons, then shows one moon passing in front of the other.

River Fans on Earth and Mars
Curiosity science team member William Dietrich explores the relationship between river fans found in California’s Death Valley on Earth and similar fans in Gale Crater on Mars.

Rover Gets Set to Scoop
NASA scientists and engineers prepare Mars Curiosity rover for its first scoop of soil for analysis.The rover's ability to put soil samples into analytical instruments is central to assessing whether its present location on Mars, called Gale Crater, ever offered environmental conditions favorable for microbial life.

Rover Readies for Second Drilling
Curiosity prepares for a second drilling and a tutorial on the complicated choreography to get the drill sample to her instruments.

Rover Results at Rocknest
NASA's Curiosity Mars rover team wraps up its scientific study at Rocknest.

SAM Sniffs the Martian Atmosphere
NASA's Curiosity rover uses SAM to make the most sensitive measurements ever to search for methane gas on the red planet.

Spring Break Over- Commanding Resumes
Curiosity gets new software and new capabilities for the long trek to Mt. Sharp.

Stopping and Stretching
NASA's Curiosity rover takes a short breather on her trek to Glenelg to check out her arm instruments.

The Cruise to Mars
The long journey to Mars through the harsh environment of space confronts the Curiosity navigation team with a long list of challenges to get the spacecraft safely to its destination.

Transporting a Mars Rover
Transporting the Curiosity rover from its birthplace in Pasadena, California to Cape Canaveral, Florida, took countless hours and careful planning and preparation. The precious rover was placed onto a flatbed truck using a forklift; was driven down the highway for several miles and flown on a military transport plane for its cross country trip. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Tribute to Jake
NASA's Curiosity heads to rock target 'Jake,' named in honor of Mars Science Laboratory engineer Jacob Matijevic.

What is SAM
Tucked inside the Curiosity rover is a miniature chemistry lab designed to unlock the secrets of Mars. Principal Investigator Paul Mahaffy, Deputy Principal Investigator Pamela Conrad, and MSL Participating Scientist Jennifer Eigenbrode discuss their work on SAM, the Sample Analysis at Mars, and its mission to the figure out the past and present chemistry of the Red Planet.

Why is Curiosity Looking for Organics
What are organic molecules, and what can they tell us about the history of Mars? Learn more in this 60-second video.

Wind and Radiation on Mars
Curiosity monitors radiation and spots elusive whirlwinds on Mars.

Working with Curiosity's ChemCam Laser
Curiosity uses its ChemCam laser to explore a tiny cluster of rocks nicknamed 'Stonehenge.'

Dawn Spacecraft's Farewell Portrait of Giant Asteroid Vesta
A simulated flyover of the most intriguing landmarks on giant asteroid Vesta, as seen by NASA's Dawn spacecraft.

Dawn's Greatest Hits at Vesta
This video highlights Dawn's top accomplishments during its orbit around the giant asteroid Vesta.

Deep Space Atomic Clock Ticks Toward Success
Dr. Todd Ely, principal investigator for NASA's Deep Space Atomic Clock at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., spotlights the paradigm-busting innovations now in development to revolutionize spaceflight navigation. The Deep Space Atomic Clock project is one of nine critical Technology Demonstration Missions now under way across the agency -- bridging the gap between laboratory development of valuable new technologies and full-scale testing in the space environment. (NASA/JPL)

Digging Deep with NASA's Next Mars Lander
Mission team members for InSight, the new Mars lander mission selected by NASA to launch in 2016, explain how the spacecraft will advance our knowledge of Mars' history and rocky planet evolution.

Direct From Pluto, First Encounter, Discovery Science Documentary - 2015
After a nine-year journey to Pluto, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft is on the verge of delivering tte first up-close images of the mysterious dwarf planet.

Discovery of Kepler-16b
NASA’s Kepler mission has turned fiction into fact. A world with a double sunset that was first imagined in 'Star Wars' over 30 years ago in a galaxy far, far away has become scientific reality. Credit: NASA / Ames Research Center

Discovery Retrospective
A retrospective look at space shuttle Discovery on the eve of its final flight.

Dynamic Earth
Watch this NASA animation as it shows a coronal mass ejection from the sun pelts Venus, and then zooms in for a close-up view of Earth's winds and ocean currents.

Earth at Night
This view of Earth at night is a cloud-free view from space as acquired by the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite. A joint program by NASA and NOAA, Suomi NPP captured this nighttime image by the day-night band of the satellite's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite VIIRS. It combines the Earth at night view created by NASA's Earth Observatory with data processed by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center with the EO Blue Marble: Next Generation.

Earth's Water Cycle
Water is the fundamental ingredient for life on Earth. Looking at our Earth from space, with its vast and deep ocean, it appears as though there is an abundance of water for our use. However, only a small portion of Earth’s water is accessible for our needs.

Earth Science Week 2012- Christy Hansen
A profile of Operation IceBridge Project Manager, Christy Hansen. Just a few months into the job, Christy is already managing a group of scientists and flight crews as they collect vital data over both of Earth's poles.

Earth Science Week 2012- Janel Thomas
A short video profile of Janel Thomas. She was a member of NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field campaign in 2010 where she operated the dropsonde instrument on board NASA’s DC-8 aircraft. She was a part of four successful missions into Hurricane Earl during late August and early September, 2010. Her research extends from the GRIP project where she is investigating the rapid intensification of tropical cyclones and the dynamic processes involved. She is currently forecasting for the NASA Hurricane and Severe Sentinel (HS3) Mission.

Einstein's Cosmic Speed Limit
When it comes to the structure of space and time, could light be the key to unlocking the final secrets of the universe?

Electrified Lunar Polar Craters?
New research from NASA's Lunar Science Institute indicates that the solar wind may be charging certain regions at the lunar poles to hundreds of volts. In this short video Dr. Bill Farrell discusses this research and what it means for future exploration of the moon's poles.

Epoxi - Mission to Comet Hartley 2
Get ready for a comet close-up! NASA's Epoxi mission will fly by Hartley 2 on Nov. 4, 2010.

ESW 2009- Climate Change and the Global Ocean
We know climate change can affect us, but does climate change alter something as vast, deep and mysterious as our oceans?

ESW 2009- Keeping Up With Carbon
The ocean plays the most critical role in regulating Earth's carbon balance, and understanding how the carbon cycle is changing is key to understanding Earth's changing climate.

ESW 2009- Salt of the Earth
The extent to which salinity impacts our global ocean circulation is still relatively unknown, but NASA's new Aquarius mission will help advance that understanding by painting a global picture of our planet's salty waters.

ESW 2009- Shrinking Ice, Rising Seas
Using satellites, lasers, and radar in space, and dedicated researchers on the ground, NASA is studying the Earth's ice and water to better understand how sea level rise might affect us all.

ESW 2009- The Ocean's Green Machines
One tiny marine plant makes life on Earth possible: phytoplankton. These microscopic photosynthetic drifters form the basis of the marine food web, they regulate carbon in the atmosphere, and are responsible for half of the photosynthesis that takes place on this planet.

ESW 2009- Water, Water Everywhere
Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every natural process on earth cannot be underestimated. It is vital to life, but it is also tightly coupled to climate, helping to carry heat from the tropics to higher latitudes.

eXtreme Deep Field Zoom-In
This video zooms into the small areas of sky that the Hubble Space Telescope was aimed at to construct the eXtreme Deep Field, or XDF. The region is located in the southern sky, far away from the glare of the Milky Way, the bright plane of our galaxy. In terms of angular size, the field is a fraction the angular diameter of the full moon, yet it contains thousands of galaxies stretching back across time.

Exploring the Inner Solar System
Chief Scientist of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Dr. Jim Garvin, takes us on a journey of Earth, the moon, and our neighboring planets. Why does space matter? Why is exploring these destinations so crucial? Where will humans venture next? Dr. Garvin answers these questions and discusses NASA's past, present, and future of discovery on our nearest neighbors in the solar system.

Evolution of the Moon
From year to year, the moon never seems to change. Craters and other formations appear to be permanent now, but the moon didn't always look like this. Learn about how the moon evolved from its early state to how it looks today in this animation.

Fermi Detects Solar Flare's Gamma Rays
During a powerful solar blast in March, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected the highest-energy light ever associated with an eruption on the sun. The discovery heralds Fermi's new role as a solar observatory, a powerful new tool for understanding solar outbursts during the sun's maximum period of activity.

Fermi discovers giant bubbles in Milky Way
Using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, scientists have recently discovered a gigantic, mysterious structure in our galaxy. This feature looks like a pair of bubbles extending above and below our galaxy's center. Each lobe is 25,000 light-years tall and the whole structure may be only a few million years old.

Fermi Finds Youthful Pulsar Among Ancient Stars
In three years, NASA's Fermi has detected more than 100 gamma-ray pulsars, but something new has appeared. Among a type of pulsar with ages typically numbering a billion years or more, Fermi has found one that appears to have been born only millions of years ago. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Fermi Sees Antimatter-Hurling Thunderstorms
NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected beams of antimatter launched by thunderstorms. Acting like enormous particle accelerators, the storms can emit gamma-ray flashes, called TGFs, and high-energy electrons and positrons. Scientists now think that most TGFs produce particle beams and antimatter.

Fermi Proves Supernova Remnants Make Cosmic Rays
The husks of exploded stars produce some of the fastest particles in the cosmos. New findings by NASA's Fermi show that two supernova remnants accelerate protons to near the speed of light. The protons interact with nearby interstellar gas clouds, which then emit gamma rays. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Fermi's GBM Finds Radio Bursts from TGFs
Lightning in the clouds is directly linked to events that produce some of the highest-energy light naturally made on Earth: terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). An instrument aboard NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was recently fine-tuned to better catch TGFs, and this allowed scientists to discover that TGFs emit radio waves, too.

Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT)
Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the spacecraft’s main scientific instrument. This animation shows a gamma ray (purple) entering the LAT, where it is converted into an electron (red) and a positron (blue). The paths of the particles point back to the gamma-ray source. The LAT maps the whole sky every three hours. (Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab)

First Impressions of Stardust-NExT Flyby of Comet
Scientists give first impressions of Stardust NExT flyby of comet Tempel 1.

First Multi-Planet System Discovered by Kepler
NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered the first confirmed planetary system with more than one planet transiting the same star. The announcement of the discovery of the two planets, Kepler 9b and 9c, is based on seven months of observations.

First X-Class Flares of 2013
On May 12-13, 2013, the sun erupted with an X1.7-class and an X2.8-class flare, as well as two coronal mass ejections, or CMEs, off the upper left side of the sun. Solar material also danced and blew off the sun in what’s called a prominence eruption on the lower right side of the sun. This movie compiles imagery of this activity from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory and from NASA and the European Space Agency's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory.

Flight Tests Validate Collision-Avoidance System
Flights tests of a smartphone-assisted automatic ground collision avoidance system at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center consistently commanded evasive maneuvers when it sensed that the unmanned test aircraft was getting too close to mountainous terrain. When fully developed, the technology could help prevent controlled-flight-into-terrain accidents by general aviation and unmanned aircraft.

Fred Haise - An American Hero
Pilot, astronaut, scholar, businessman, role model... Fred Haise is the quintessential American Hero. Best known as one of the three NASA astronauts who survived potential tragedy on the ill-fated Apollo 13 lunar mission in 1970, Haise has also distinguished himself in other aerospace endeavors, academia, private industry and community service.

Friendship 7 50th Anniversary
50th Anniversary of American Orbital Flight

Gene Kranz Speech
Apollo Flight Director Gene Kranz addresses the test facility’s employees, near an Apollo 16 crew photo of Mattingly, Young, and Duke.

Getting to Know the Goldilocks Planet
NASA's Kepler spacecraft is discovering a veritable avalanche of alien worlds. As the numbers mount, it seems to be just a matter of time before Kepler finds what astronomers are really looking for: an Earth-like planet orbiting its star in the 'Goldilocks zone'.

Giant Prominence Erupts - April 16, 2012
A prominence shots off the left side of the sun in association with an M1 class flare that was not Earth-directed.

GOES-13 Sees Life and Death of Hurricane Sandy
This animation of satellite imagery shows the life of Hurricane Sandy from its development in the Caribbean Sea on Oct. 21, through its track up the U.S. East coast and landfall. The animation continues through Oct. 31 when Sandy had weakened to a remnant low pressure area. Credit: NASA GOES Project

GOES Weather Satellite Watches The Sun
NASA satellites such as STEREO, SOHO, and SDO are dedicated to studying the sun. GOES is a weather satellite but also watches the sun constantly. Watch this video and learn why space weather data is so important for every day life here on Earth.

Goodyear Inflatoplane
A 1960 test film from the Langley Full Scale Tunnel of an inflatable airplane developed by Goodyear. As tunnel wind speed increases, the wings begin to buckle.

Gordon Cooper's Mercury Mission Faith 7
Historical B-roll of Gordon Cooper's flight of Faith 7

Gradient Sun
Using a gradient filter on imagery captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) helped create this stunning display of sharply defined coronal loops on the sun next to fuzzier, cooler areas that are sometimes referred to as 'moss' due to their moss-like appearance. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

GRAIL Mission Returns First Video of Moon's Far Side
NASA's GRAIL mission has beamed back its first video of the far side of the moon. The imagery was taken on Jan. 19 by the MoonKAM aboard the mission's 'Ebb' spacecraft.

GRAIL Webcast- Twin Spacecraft Bound for the Moon
The moon has captivated humanity's collective imagination for hundreds of years, but despite study with telescopes, astronauts and robotic probes, our nearest neighbor remains a mystery. NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission (GRAIL) features twin spacecraft setting off on a challenging mission to map the moon's gravity. What they learn could teach us more about the moon's past -- and how the inner solar system's rocky planets developed.

Great Observatories Find Candidate for Most Distant Object
The newly discovered galaxy, named MACS0647-JD, is very young and only a tiny fraction of the size of our Milky Way. The object is observed 420 million years after the big bang.

Hidden Magnetic Portals Around Earth
A NASA-sponsored researcher at the University of Iowa has developed a way for spacecraft to hunt down hidden magnetic portals in the vicinity of Earth. These gateways link the magnetic field of our planet to that of the sun, setting the stage for stormy space weather.

How Did Mars Lose Its Atmosphere
Though it doesn't look like a nice place to live now, Mars may have had an atmosphere more like ours on Earth! But how did it lose it? One way a planet can lose its atmosphere is through a process called 'sputtering.' In this process, atoms are knocked away from the atmosphere due to impacts from energetic particles. Learn more in this video!

How Does a Lunar Eclipse Work
When the moon passes through the Earth's shadow, it causes the moon to look very unusual for a short period of time. This event is called a lunar eclipse, and it occurs roughly twice a year. Learn more about how lunar eclipses work in this video! Credit goes to TheWusa from for the illustrations that this video’s light scattering animations are based on. (Dec. 10, 2011, eclipse)

Hubble- 20 Years of Discovery
Hubble's discoveries have revolutionized nearly all areas of current astronomical research from planetary science to cosmology. Actor and writer Brent Spiner narrates a visual journey back in time and into the farthest reaches of the cosmos.

Hydrogen Hot Spots on Vesta
The animation from NASA's Dawn mission shows abundances of hydrogen in a wide swath around the equator of the giant asteroid Vesta.

I Was Strolling on the Moon One Day
Apollo 17 astronauts Gene Cernan and Jack Schmitt sing while walking on the moon during the last Apollo lunar landing mission.

IBEX- Observing the Sun's Horizon
The Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, is the first mission designed to map the entire region of the boundary of our Solar System. This region emits no light so, instead, IBEX measures the particles traveling inward from the boundary. IBEX's objective is to discover the nature of the interactions between the solar wind and the interstellar medium at the edge of our Solar System.

Imported Dust in North American Skies
NASA and university scientists have made the first measurement-based estimate of the amount and composition of tiny airborne particles that arrive in the air over North America each year. With a 3D view of the atmosphere now possible from satellites, the scientists distinguished dust from pollution, and calculated that dust is the main ingredient of these foreign imports.

Infrared- Beyond the Visible
'Infrared: Beyond the Visible,' is a fast, fun look at why infrared light matters to astronomy, and what the Webb Space Telescope will search for once it's in orbit. Caption file available at:

Infrared Hotspots in a Monster Saturn Storm
This animation shows 'beacons' of hot air seen in the infrared that appeared during a great springtime storm on Saturn from January 2011 to March 2012.

Innovation Now - HIAD- Changing the Way We Explore
A HIAD (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator) could allow NASA to send more scientific instruments to distant worlds because it weighs less.

Inside the Russian Soyuz Spacecraft
In this episode of NASA: Behind the Scenes, take a tour inside the Russian Soyuz, the vehicle which takes the expedition crews back and forth to the International Space Station. Astronaut Mike Fincke, a veteran of the Soyuz and shuttle, shows off the features of the vehicles and talks about what it’s like to be inside.

Interview with Amy Ross, Spacesuit Engineer (Part 1)
NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with Amy Ross, Spacesuit Engineer at Johnson Space Center.

Interview with Amy Ross, Spacesuit Engineer (Part 2)
NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with Amy Ross, Spacesuit Engineer at Johnson Space Center.

Introduction to Heliophysics
This short overview for NASA's Heliophysics division explains how NASA studies the sun -- and more importantly, how it affects our daily lives.

Intro to Space Weather Vocabulary
Heliophysics research studies how energy and material from the sun affects Earth and the entire solar system. It’s a complex system that begins on the sun when events on the sun, such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections, travel out into space. These cause electromagnetic effects that drive space weather close to Earth -- from aurora to radio blackouts to changes in the radiation belts surrounding Earth. Scientists study the minutiae of how energy transfers from one event to the other and which electromagnetic waves create which conditions near Earth. Since space weather effects can disrupt satellites in space, scientists need to understand the system in even more detail. Watch the video to see how events on the sun affect Earth. Suitable for all ages, this intro to space weather covers vocabulary like coronal mass ejection (CME), solar wind, and solar flare. It also outlines potential effects of solar storms on our planet.

Dan Burbank Gives a Station Tour
Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank gives a video tour of the International Space Station, highlighting some of the science facilities and equipment aboard the orbiting laboratory.

Dragon Grappled and Berthed to Station
The SpaceX Dragon capsule is grappled and berthed to the Earth-facing port of the International Space Station's Harmony module at 12:02 p.m. EDT, May 25, 2012.

Human Research Facility
This is one of a series of short features about some of the experiment racks on station. This video focuses on the Human Research Facility (HRF) and features the Space Linear Acceleration Mass Measurement Device (SLAMMD).

Inside the International Space Station- Episode 4 Chapter 3 – Comet Lovejoy
Expedition 30 astronauts Dan Burbank and Don Pettit saw and photographed Comet Lovejoy but weren’t sure what it was at first.

ISS Update- After the Venus Transit
ISS Update commentator Brandi Dean interviewed astronaut Mario Runco about the results of the Expedition 31 crew’s effort to photograph Venus transit. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer
NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Trent Martin, Johnson Space Center project manager for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- ATV-3 ReEntry Breakup Recorder
ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan talks with Dr. William Ailor, Principal Investigator for the ReEntry Breakup Recorder (REBR) for The Aerospace Corporation. Ailor talks about capturing data as Europe’s ATV-3 cargo craft re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere for a fiery destruction over the Pacific Ocean.

ISS Update- Bone Health in Space
NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Dr. Jean Sibonga, Bone Lead Human Research Program, about the changes in bone structure and bone loss as a result of long term missions in space and countermeasures such as exercise, diet and drugs to maintain crew health. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- Burning and Suppression of Solids
ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Paul Ferkul, Principal Investigator for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment, about performing combustion experiments in microgravity. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- Checking Out Robonaut 2
NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly interviews Nic Radford, deputy project manager for Robonaut 2, as the astronauts aboard the station checked out the humanoid robot. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- Flight Surgeon Keeps Crew Healthy
NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer talks with NASA Medical Flight Officer Steve Gilmore about the role of a flight surgeon in tracking astronaut health and coordinating crew medical experiments before, during and after spaceflight. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation.

ISS Update- How Long-Duration Spaceflight Affects Health
ISS Update commentator Kelly Humphries interviews Dr. Scott Smith, Principal Investigator for the Pro_K and Nutrition experiments. During the interview, Smith talks about the Pro_K experiment, Nutrition experiment and how the microgravity environment of space can affect vision and health. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book - Space Nutrition
NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children’s book he co-authored called “Space Nutrition.” The book talks about the history of space flight, the various space programs and of course space food.

ISS Update- Packing and Preparing Space Food - Part 1
Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer talks with NASA Food Scientist Vickie Kloeris at Johnson Space Center's Space Food Laboratory. They talk about preparing a Thanksgiving dinner for the residents of the International Space Station.

ISS Update- Packing and Preparing Space Food - Part 2
Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer talks with NASA Food Scientist Vickie Kloeris at Johnson Space Center's Space Food Laboratory. They are inside the Packaging Room that filters out contaminants and packages food for the astronauts. Beverages, freeze-dried food and snacks such as cookies and M&Ms are packaged here.

ISS Update- Plants in Space
NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks with Camille Alleyne, International Space Station Program Scientist, about the plant research taking place aboard the station. Dr. Anna-Lisa Paul, a research associate professor from the University of Florida, joins the conversation by phone to discuss the Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System experiment.

ISS Update- Robonaut Glove Test (Part 1)
NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Lyndon Bridgwater, Lead Mechanical Engineer for Robonaut 2 and Robo-Glove Project, about the Robonaut glove test. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- Robonaut Glove Test (Part 2)
NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Chris Ihrke, General Motors Lead Engineer for the Robo-Glove Project, about the Robonaut glove test. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- Robonaut 2
ISS Update commentator Pat Ryan sits down with Dr. Ron Diftler, Robonaut project lead, to discuss the first humanoid robot in space. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation.

ISS Update- Solar Powered Refrigerator
NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Mike Ewert, Life Support and Thermal Systems Engineer. Ewert co-invented the solar powered refrigerator for stowage of medical samples, preservation of food and cooling of astronauts and thier habitats. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- Science and Commercial Vehicles
NASA Public Affairs Office commentator Pat Ryan talks with Dr. Tara Ruttley, ISS Associate Program Scientist, about the science payload carried in the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, the impact of commercial cargo ships on science activities and the ISS Research & Development Conference in June. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- Space Flight and the Immune System
NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Brian Crucian, NASA immunologist, about the issues with space flight and the immune system. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- Space Nutrition
NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Scott M. Smith, NASA Nutritionist, about nutrition experiments taking place aboard the International Space Station. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- SpaceX Dragon Operations
NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks with Lead Integration and Systems Engineer Paul Brower about SpaceX Dragon operations as the spacecraft's unberthing approaches. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

ISS Update- VASIMR Plasma Rocket
NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Ken Bollweg, VASIMR Project Manager, about VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket), recent testing progress and future applications. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit

Launch of SpaceX Falcon 9
The SpaceX Falcon 9 and Dragon capsule lift off May 22, 2012, from Cape Canaveral Air Force station in Florida to begin a demonstration mission to the International Space Station.

Microgravity Science Glovebox
This video is one of a series of short features about some of the experiment racks on station. This video focuses on the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) and features the Structure and Liftoff in Combustion Experiment (SLICE) and the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS).

Minus Eighty-Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS
This is one of a series of short features about some of the experiment racks on station. This video focuses on the Minus Eighty-Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI).

Robonaut 2 ISS Operations Overview
Deputy Robonaut 2 Project Manager Nic Radford discusses the culmination of R2’s checkouts on orbit and what’s next for the robot.

Robonaut 2 Speaks Sign Language
Robonaut 2 goes through a series of dexterity tests as it spells out “Hello world” in sign language while Flight Engineer Don Pettit looks on.

Space Station Live- Astronaut Don Pettit on Earth Photography
In observance of Earth Day, Space Station Live commentator Pat Ryan talks with NASA astronaut Don Pettit, who along with his fellow Expedition 30/31 crew members captured more than a half a million photographs of Earth from aboard the International Space Station.

Space Station Live- Fluids and Combustion Facility
NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean speaks with Robert Corban, Fluids and Combustion Facility Manager, about the research being performed aboard the International Space Station using this state-of-the-art facility.

Station Assembly Animation
This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics Carrier-3 and the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. The space station is a collaborative product of five space agencies, representing 15 nations, and has been continuously inhabited by humans since November 2000.

Station Crew Talks To Reporters About Dragon Spacecraft
Expedition 31 Flight Engineers Don Pettit, Andre Kuipers and Joe Acaba discuss Dragon’s mission with reporters during a crew news conference. Dragon is scheduled to spend six days berthed to the station before being detached and released on May 31.

Station Tour- Cupola and Leonardo
Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams continues the tour of the International Space Station with a look at the station's observation deck, the cupola, as well as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device in the Tranquility node, before heading into the Leonardo Permanent Multi-Purpose Module.

Station Tour- Harmony, Tranquility, Unity
Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams starts off her tour of the International Space Station with a look at its nodes -- Harmony, Tranquility and Unity -- which include the crew's sleeping quarters and hygiene station.

Station Tour- Kibo, Columbus, Destiny
Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams continues the International Space Station tour with a look at the Destiny, Kibo and Columbus labs as well as the Quest airlock.

Station Tour- Russian Segment
Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1998, and Zvezda, the central command post. She also takes a look at the Poisk and Rassvet modules where Soyuz spacecraft are docked.

James Webb Telescope Deploys
September 2010 animation showing the deployment sequence of the James Webb Space Telescope extracting, deploying, and unfolding the sunshield and the mirror. Credit: NASA/Northrop Grumman

Joe Engle Recalls Legacy Of X-15 Testing at Dryden
Retired Air Force test pilot and NASA astronaut Joe Engle recalled the legacy of the famed X-15 rocket plane recently during a colloquium at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Engle, the only person to fly into space in both air and spacecraft, flew 16 hypersonic flights in the X-15 in the 1960s, the space shuttle approach and landing tests in 1977, and two orbital space missions in the 1980s.

Jupiter's Hot Spots
NASA postdoctoral fellow David Choi discusses his study of dark features in Jupiter's atmosphere called 'hot spots,' and their connection to large-scale atmospheric waves.

JWST Mirror Installation
The first six of 18 hexagonal shaped segments that will form NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope’s primary mirror for space observations were readied this week to begin final cryogenic testing at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. Testing in Marshall's X-ray and Cryogenic Facility will confirm the mirrors will respond as expected to the extreme temperatures of space.

Kennedy Space Center's 50th Anniversary
Take a look at Kennedy Space Center's rich legacy as the spaceport celebrates its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2012.

Kennedy Space Center's Countdown Clock
The blue countdown clock at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida served a vital role in the Space Shuttle Program to coordinate launch activities.

Kepler Discovers Earth-size Planet Candidates
NASA's Kepler mission has discovered its first Earth-size planet candidates and its first candidates in the habitable zone, a region where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface. Five of the potential planets are near Earth-size and orbit in the habitable zone of smaller, cooler stars than our sun.

Kepler- One Year Anniversary
NASA's Kepler spacecraft has successfully completed the first year of its mission to search for Earth-like planets in our galaxy.

Kepler Overview
Learn more about Kepler's search for habitable planets.

Kepler- The Search for Earth-Size Planets Begins
Since its launch in March, 2009, the Kepler Mission has announced the discovery of 9 confirmed exoplanets (or planets outside our solar system). This video explores how the team works to combine photometry from the spacecraft, data from ground-based observatories and precise asteroseismic analysis to determine if Earths are common or rare in our Galaxy.

Kepler-20 System Overview
NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first Earth-size planets orbiting a sun-like star outside our solar system. The planets, Kepler-20e and Kepler-20f, are too close to their star to be in the so-called habitable zone where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface, but they are the smallest exoplanets ever confirmed around a star like our sun

KSC Employees Assemble for Historic Photo
Employees at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, Fla., took a few moments to assemble for a historic aerial photo Friday outside Kennedy’s Vehicle Assembly Building. Thousands of workers stood side-by-side to form an outline of a space shuttle. The event was organized in honor of the Space Shuttle Program’s 30-year legacy.

Landsat- 25 Years in the Pacific Northwest Forest -- North South Tour
This visualization shows a sequence of Landsat-based data in the Pacific Northwest. There is one data set for each year representing an aggregate of the approximate peak of the growing season (around August). The data was created using a sophisticated algorithm called LandTrendr. LandTrendr analyzes 'stacks' of Landsat scenes, looking for statistical trends in the data and filtering out noise. The algorithm evaluated data from more than 1,800 Landsat Thematic Mapper images, nearly 1 Terabyte of raw imagery, to define the life histories of each of more than 336 million pixels on the landscape. The resulting trends identify periods of stability and change that are displayed as colors. In these false color images, the colors represent types of land; for example, blue areas are forests; orange/yellow areas are agriculture; and, purple areas are urban. Each 'stack' is representative of a Landsat scene. There are 22 stacks stitched together to cover most of the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

Landsat- Making a Difference, One User at a Time
The Landsat Data Continuity Mission will continue and improve upon the 40-year-old Landsat program. This video examines two uses of Landsat data to monitor agriculture. Both wineries and timber companies rely on Landsat data to check whether their vines and trees are getting enough (or too much) water and fertilizer. The resolution and regularity of the satellite data is crucial for them.

Launching a New Tool For Climate Science
NASA's NPP mission will continue collecting critical climate data to help scientist unravel the mysteries of climate change. NPP is carrying five instruments on board. The biggest and most important instrument is The Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite or VIIRS. This video focuses on VIIRS and why it is so important to Earth's science.

Learning Space- Elmo Visits Kennedy Space Center
Elmo came down to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to see the last launch of the space shuttle and to find out about spaceflight.

LEND- The Lunar Neutron Counter
How would you find water on the Moon? NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has a unique idea: Count the neutrons coming from the moon! Find out more in this video

LRO Reveals 'Recent' Lunar Activity
New images acquired by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft show that the moon's crust is being slightly stretched, forming small valleys - at least in some small areas. High-resolution images obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) provide evidence that these valleys are very young, suggesting the moon has experienced relatively recent geologic activity.

Lunar Landing Research Vehicle
The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first glance it seemed that a helicopter could be used to simulate flying the LM, but early test flights proved that it was not even close. Helicopters, or any vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, are

Mars - Dry Ice and Dunes
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter captures the springtime thaw of seasonal carbon dioxide ice on Mars.

Mars’ Whirling Dust Devil
Animation of a skinny 'dust devil' on the dust-covered Amazonis Planitia region of northern Mars.

MAVEN- Exploring the Upper Atmosphere of Mars
The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), set to launch in 2013, will explore the planet’s upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind. Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN's Principal Investigator discusses the mission.

McNeil's Nebula Protostar Flaunts its X-ray Spots
During outbursts, the infant star in McNeil's Nebula may brighten by 100 times at X-ray energies. In this animation, based on findings by NASA's Chandra Observatory, the Japan/U.S. Suzaku spacecraft, and Europe's XMM-Newton satellite, magnetic fields drive powerful flows onto the star, creating two hot spots that produce the high-energy emission.

Meanwhile, at the Bottom of the Ocean ...
The Ben Franklin mission has been forgotten by time, overshadowed by the concurrent Apollo 11 mission. However, the scientific findings obtained by six aquanauts have provided a foundation for understanding the Gulf Stream and ocean currents. This webshort was produced as an educational tie-in with the Science on a Sphere feature LOOP.

Measuring Ripples in Space-Time
Einstein predicted gravity waves in his general theory of relativity, but to date these ripples in the fabric of space-time have never been observed. Now a scientific research technique called Atomic Interferometry is trying to re-write the canon. In conjunction with researchers at Stanford University, scientists at NASA Goddard are developing a system to measure the faint gravitational vibrations generated by movement of massive objects in the universe. The scientific payoff could be important, helping better clarify key issues in our understanding of cosmology. But application payoff could be substantial, too, with the potential to develop profound advances in fields like geolocation and timekeeping. In this video we examine how the system would work, and the scientific underpinnings of the research effort.

Meet NASA's Bug Team
There's a team of researchers at NASA's Langley Research Center in Virginia who are studying ways to prevent the remains of insect impacts from sticking to the wing of an aircraft in flight. Meet Mia Siochi and other members of the bug team who are testing different coatings to see which do the best job at preventing bug build-up and the resulting disruption of air flow that reduces fuel efficiency.

Micro-sub Explores Buried Antarctic Lake
NASA/JPL researcher Alberto Behar joins an international Antarctic expedition to investigate a subglacial lake.

Milky Way's Head-On Collision
This animation depicts the collision between our Milky Way galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy. Hubble Space Telescope observations indicate that the two galaxies, pulled together by their mutual gravity, will crash together about 4 billion years from now. Around 6 billion years from now, the two galaxies will merge to form a single galaxy. The video also shows the Triangulum galaxy, which will join in the collision and perhaps later merge with the Andromeda/Milky Way pair.

Modifying the VAB
The iconic Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida is undergoing renovations to handle more rockets and spacecraft for the next generation of space explorers. The refurbishment includes modernizing the facility's infrastructure, including pulling out 50 miles of old cables.

Moon Phase and Libration 2013- Additional Graphics
This visualization shows the phase and libration of the Moon throughout the year 2013, at hourly intervals. Each frame represents one hour. In addition, this version of the visualization shows additional relevant information, including the Moon's orbit position, subsolar and subearth points, distance from the Earth, and more. To learn more about this, visit!

MSL Launches With MEDLI Sensors
NASA engineers Michelle Munk and David Way explain the MEDLI -- Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation -- package on the MSL aeroshell that will measure the heating and pressure the Curiosity rover experiences as it flies through the atmosphere of Mars to its landing site.

Mt. St. Helens Timelapse
The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in the state of Washington leveled surrounding forest, blasted away more than 1,000 feet of the mountain's summit and claimed 57 human lives. Landsat satellites have tracked the recovery of the surrounding forest. This video shows a timelapse of the recovery, with annual images from 1979-2011.

Mysterious Hurricane at Saturn's North Pole
Narrated video about a hurricane-like storm seen at Saturn's north pole by NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

NASA Developing Mining Robot for Moon, Mars
NASA is developing the RASSOR mining robot to collect soil, or regolith, on the moon or Mars so it can be processed into rocket fuel, breathable air and other commodities. By using materials available at other locations in the solar system, astronauts don't have to carry it all from Earth.

NASA's Fermi Shows How Active Galaxies Can Be
Active galaxies called blazars make up the largest class of objects detected by Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT). Massive black holes in the hearts of these galaxies fire particle jets in our direction. Fermi team member Elizabeth Hays narrates this quick tour of blazars, which includes LAT movies showing how rapidly their emissions can change. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

NASA Johnson Style - Gangnam Style Parody
NASA Johnson Style is a volunteer outreach video project created by the students of NASA's Johnson Space Center. It was created as an educational parody of Psy's Gangnam Style. The lyrics and scenes in the video have been re-imagined in order to inform the public about the amazing work going on at NASA and the Johnson Space Center.

NASA's IBEX Observes Interstellar Matter
The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has directly sampled multiple heavy elements from the Local Interstellar Cloud for the first time. It turns out that this interstellar material is not like the Sun, but the reason for this is unknown. Also, IBEX has caught the interstellar wind that surrounds and compresses our heliosphere and has found that it travels more slowly and in a different direction than previously thought.

NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Multiple Planets Orbiting Twin Suns
NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first transiting circumbinary system -- multiple planets orbiting two suns -- 4,900 light-years from Earth, in the constellation Cygnus, proving that more than one planets can form and survive in orbit around a binary star. The inner planet, Kepler-47b, orbits the pair of stars in less than 50 days. It is thought to be a sweltering world, where the destruction of methane in its super-heated atmosphere might lead to a thick haze that could blanket the planet. At three times the radius of Earth, Kepler-47b is the smallest known transiting circumbinary planet. The outer planet, Kepler-47c, orbits its host pair every 303 days, placing it in the so-called 'habitable zone,' the region in a planetary system where liquid water might exist on the surface of a planet. While not a world hospitable for life, Kepler-47c is thought to be a gaseous giant, slightly larger than Neptune, where an atmosphere of thick bright water clouds might exist. For more ...

NASA's Mars Landings
This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reach Mars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and the target location where Curiosity will touch down on Aug. 6, 2012. Data collected by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft was used to create the topography and surface color details seen here.

NASA Now Minute- Primitive Asteroids- OSIRIS-Rex
Dr. Joseph A. Nuth III, project scientist for the new Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer mission, provides an in-depth look at why the OSIRIS-REx mission to a primitive asteroid is so important to understanding our past and how it could impact our future. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at:

NASA Radar Images Asteroid Toutatis
This 64-frame movie of asteroid Toutatis was generated from data by Goldstone's Solar System Radar on Dec. 12 and 13, 2012. In the movie clips, the rotation of the asteroid appears faster than it occurs in nature.

NASA Researches the 'FaINT' Side of Sonic Booms
As the latest in a continuing progression of NASA supersonics research projects aimed at reducing or mitigating the effect of sonic booms, the Farfield Investigation of No Boom Threshold, or FaINT, flight research project will help engineers better understand evanescent waves, an acoustic phenomenon that occurs at the very edges or just outside of the cone or envelope where sonic booms are heard.

NASA’s New Horizons Team Reveals New Scientific Findings on Pluto
During a July 24 science update at NASA headquarters, new surprising imagery and science results were revealed from the recent flyby of Pluto, by the New Horizons spacecraft. These included an image from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager or (LORRI) – looking back at Pluto – hours after the historic flyby that shows haze in the planet’s sunlit atmosphere, that extends as high as 80 miles above Pluto’s surface – much higher than expected. Models suggest that the hazes form when ultraviolet sunlight breaks apart methane gas. LORRI images also show evidence that exotic ices have flowed – and may still be flowing across Pluto’s surface, similar to glacial movement on Earth. This unpredicted sign of present-day geologic activity was detected in Sputnik Planum – an area in the western part of Pluto’s heart-shaped Tombaugh Regio. Additionally, new compositional data from New Horizons’ Ralph instrument indicate that the center of Sputnik Planum is rich in nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane ices.

NASA's Solar Fleet Sees Massive Filament Erupt on Sun
A long filament erupted on the sun on August 31, 2012, shown here in a movie captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) from noon EDT to 1:45 a.m. the next morning. The filament lies in the lower left corner of the sun. The movie shows light at 304 Angstroms and 171 Angstroms, both of which help scientists observe the sun's atmosphere, or corona. STEREO and SOHO were witness to the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) and their views are shown, as well.

NASA's Space Launch System- Powering Forward
One year ago, NASA announced a new capability for America's space program: a heavy-lift rocket to launch humans farther into space than ever before. See how far the Space Launch System has come in one short year. (NASA/MSFC)

NASA's Swift Finds 'Missing' Active Galaxies
Astronomers using data from NASA's Swift satellite confirm the existence of a largely unseen population of black-hole-powered galaxies. Their X-ray emissions are so heavily absorbed that little more than a dozen are known. Yet astronomers say that despite the deeply dimmed X-rays, the sources represent the tip of the iceberg, accounting for at least one-fifth of all active galaxies.

NASA X- IRVE-3- A New Way To Land On Other Planets
Researchers have developed a revolutionary new way to land on other planets

National Geographic - Mission Pluto (2015)
National Geographic Channel joins top scientists at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in conjunction with NASA on a historic mission to the edge of our solar system with the goal of capturing the first clear images and data ever recorded of Pluto. Small, cold, and absurdly far away, Pluto has always been selfish with its secrets. Since its discovery in 1930, the dwarf planet has revolved beyond reach, its frosty surface a blurred mystery that even the most powerful telescopes can’t bring into focus. We know about Pluto. But we don’t really know it.

Near-Earth Asteroid - Mission Animation
This concept animation shows astronauts in the Space Exploration Vehicle docking with a near-Earth asteroid, performing a spacewalk, and returning to Earth in the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. This future journey will answer compelling science questions about the solar system’s formation and Earth’s water and organics. It will increase our understanding of the threat of an asteroid impact and ability to mitigate such an event, and enable exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond.

Neil Armstrong- The Real Right Stuff- 1955 - 1962
Famed Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong, the first man on the moon, was an engineering research test pilot at the NACA High-Speed Flight Station, later the NASA Flight Research Center, at Edwards from 1955 through 1962. This video recalls some of the many contributions he made to aerospace research during his seven-year stint at the center before he was selected for NASA's astronaut corps.

Neil Armstrong, Former NASA Astronaut
Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon has died. He was 82. Armstrong, considered an American hero, commanded the the Apollo 11 spacecraft that landed on the moon in 1969. The phrase he uttered that day as he stepped onto the surface of the moon, “That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind,” became iconic.

Neil Armstrong Tribute
Astronauts and other former colleagues remember Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander and first man to walk on the moon.

Neptune and Moons
This video sequence compiles data from Hubble's observations of Neptune to show the blue-green planet rotating on its tilted axis. A day on Neptune is 16 hours long, and Hubble took images of the planet every four hours. Some of Neptune's moons are also shown. (No audio.) Video Credit: NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI) Science Credit: The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) and A. Simon-Miller (NASA Goddard)

New Horizon Launch
Two views of launch of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft aboard an Atlas V rocket on January 19, 2006, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. New Horizons was the fastest spacecraft ever launched, leaving Earth at approximately 36,000 miles per hour.

New Horizons Launch, TBT Launches
Welcome to Throw Back Thursday Launches! Today we look back at the launch of New Horizons on its mission to Pluto.

New LRO Images Offer Sharper Views of Apollo Sites
NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has captured the sharpest images ever taken from space of the Apollo 12, 14 and 17 sites, revealing the twists and turns of the paths made when the astronauts explored these areas.

NPP Prelaunch Webcast
The NPP Pre-Launch Webcast looks at NASA’s upcoming NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission. NPP represents a critical first step in building the next-generation of Earth-observing satellites. The mission will test key technologies and instruments. It also will continue to gather information to continue to build on the data record from previous Earth-observing satellites. Tim Dunn and Bruce Reid of NASA's Launch Services Program discuss preparations for the launch and NPP Project Scientist James Gleason talks about what results are expected from the spacecraft's five unique instruments

NuSTAR Spacecraft and Vehicle Flow
Engineers took special care when preparing the NuSTAR spacecraft and Pegasus rocket for launch.

OIB- High and Low Over the Rift
Operation IceBridge returned twice in 2012 to the Pine Island Glacier, the site of a massive year-old crack that is poised to create a giant iceberg.

OIB- Sea Ice Interlude
Sea ice comes in an array of shapes and sizes and has its own ephemeral beauty. Operation IceBridge studies sea ice at both poles, and also runs across interesting formations en route to other targets.

On the Wings of Webb
The James Webb Space Telescope is designed to unfold after it is deployed and in orbit. The primary mirror with its 18 segments is held in place by a honeycomb-like structure called a backplane. This has three parts -- a center section and two wings. 'Behind the Webb' video series host Mary Estacion travels to ATK in Magna, Utah, where the backplane and, in particular, the wings are built.

One Small Step, One Giant Leap
Restored footage of Neil Armstrong's first steps on the lunar surface during the Apollo 11 mission in July 1969.

Opportunity on Mars - Eight years and counting
NASA's Opportunity rover hits 8-year mark on Mars.

Origin Story- Blended Wing Body
NASA is partnering with the Boeing Company, among others, to develop and test the blended wing body aircraft. The BWB has the potential to significantly reduce fuel use and noise. In this video, Boeing tells the story of how they furthered the BWB design.

OSIRIS-REx- Journey to an Asteroid
OSIRIS-REx will visit a near-Earth asteroid called Bennu and return with samples that may hold clues to the origins of the solar system and perhaps life itself. It will also investigate the asteroid's chance of impacting Earth in 2182. This narrated video provides an overview of the OSIRIS-REx (short for Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security -- Regolith Explorer) mission.

Orion- From Factory to Flight
NASA is making steady progress on building the Orion spacecraft, which will take astronauts deeper into space than ever before. Take a look at the latest achievements and milestones in “Orion: From Factory to Flight” as Orion gets ready for its first orbital test flight in 2014.

Our Dynamic Sun
Starting with the discovery of sunspots by Galileo in 1609, we have continued to study the Sun.

Pegasus to Launch NuSTAR from Pacific
The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, NuSTAR, will launch on a Pegasus rocket into Earth orbit where it will detect high-energy X-rays to uncover hidden black holes, exploded stars and other features of the universe.

Planetary CSI- Crater Science Investigations
If you want to learn more about the history of Earth and other rocky planets in the solar system, craters are a great place to look. Now, thanks to LRO's LROC instrument, we can take a much closer look at Linné Crater on the moon--a pristine crater that's great to use to compare with other craters!

Pluto in a Minute, How Did New Horizons Get to Pluto
Designing a trajectory for a flyby mission to Pluto involves working backwards from what you want to do when you get into the system, at least, that's the way Yanping Guo approached the problem. She began by looking at the science the team wanted to get done while at Pluto, and there were two very interesting design constraints, namely, there were two occultations, one from the Sun and one from the Earth. The spacecraft had to fly behind Pluto and have both the Sun and the Earth on the opposite side of the planet at the same time. There are only two times in the Earth year when that happens, once in January and once in July.

President Kennedy on Telstar
President John F. Kennedy gives a press conference on July 23, 1962.

President Kennedy's Speech at Rice University
On Sept. 12, 1962, President John F. Kennedy announced that the United States would land men on the moon.

Previously Undetected Radiation Belt Revealed
Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. Observations from NASA’s Van Allen Probes reveal an isolated third ring in the outer radiation belt.

Pursuit of Light
Big data; awesome resolution; indie filmmaking. NASA takes aim at wide audiences with a bold, inventive short film built from some of the biggest data sets ever captured by the space agency. Combined with arresting time lapse footage of the natural world and a moody, energetic score, 'Pursuit of Light' presents an exciting take on daring NASA science in the 21st century.

Radiation and Human Space Exploration
Just outside the protective layer of Earth’s atmosphere and magnetosphere, is a universe full of radiation. What happens to our bodies when we leave the surface of Earth to travel in space or visit the International Space Station?

Raining Loops on the Sun
On July 19, 2012, an eruption occurred on the sun that produced a moderately powerful solar flare and a dazzling magnetic display known as coronal rain. Hot plasma in the corona cooled and condensed along strong magnetic fields in the region. Magnetic fields, are invisible, but the charged plasma is forced to move along the lines, showing up brightly in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength of 304 Angstroms, and outlining the fields as it slowly falls back to the solar surface. Music: 'Thunderbolt' by Lars Leonhard, courtesy of artist.

Rattling Jet Stream On Jupiter
New movies of Jupiter are the first to catch an invisible wave shaking up one of the giant planet's jet streams, an interaction that also takes place in Earth's atmosphere and influences the weather.

RBSP- Studying the Sun's Influence on Earth
Two wide rings of high-intensity particles encircle our planet's equator. Known as the Van Allen Radiation Belts, their behavior in response to the sun directly impacts life on Earth and in orbit. NASA's two-year Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission aims to study this ever-changing space environment in greater detail than ever before.

Red Bull Stratos Presentation
Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 feet in a stratospheric balloon, made a supersonic free-fall, and parachuted safely back to earth on Oct. 14, 2012 providing potentially valuable medical & scientific research data for future pioneers.

Red Hot Solar Ballet
This minor eruption rises and falls with the grace and polished movement of a ballet dancer (Oct. 4, 2012). The close-up video at just about full resolution captures the event in extreme ultraviolet light, 304 wavelength, with this 2.5-hour observation. Most of the particles do not have enough momentum to break away into space and are pulled down again into the Sun.

Remembering NASA Photographer Bill Taub
Bill Taub was able to capture the essence of the space program in his work from the time NASA began in 1958, through the last Apollo flight in 1975.

River Fans on Earth and Mars
Curiosity science team member William Dietrich explores the relationship between river fans found in California’s Death Valley on Earth and similar fans in Gale Crater on Mars.

Saturn's Aurora in a New Light
A Cassini scientist explains the flickering 'northern lights' high above Saturn, shown for the first time in a visible-light movie.

Saturn’s Record-Setting Storm
Saturn’s 2010 Great White Spot storm has set a new record for the largest atmospheric temperature change ever detected during a storm on the ringed planet. By studying the monstrous disturbance using NASA's Cassini spacecraft, researchers spotted a massive belch of energy that sent temperatures soaring to an unprecedented 150 degrees Fahrenheit above normal in Saturn's stratosphere, accompanied by an enormous release of ethylene gas.

Saturn's Weirdest Ring
Images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft have revealed half-mile-sized (kilometer-sized) objects punching through parts of Saturn's F ring, leaving glittering trails behind them. These trails in the rings, which scientists are calling 'mini-jets,' fill in a missing link in our story of the curious behavior of the F ring.

Saved By A Weather Satellite
This is a story about an incredibly challenging rescue that took place on Jan. 2, 2010, 250 miles off the shore of North Carolina. Dennis Clements was saved thanks to a distress signal sent from his emergency beacon (EPIRB) to the GOES satellite shortly before he was dragged under water.

Science off the Sphere- Astro Puffs
In his off-duty time, NASA Astronaut Don Pettit experiments with the physics of water in the weightless environment aboard the International Space Station. Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit's physics challenge and view future experiments here:

Science off the Sphere- Earth in Infrared
International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit views cities, agricultural areas and deserts using an infrared camera for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit’s physics challenge and view future experiments here:

Science off the Sphere- Fun with Antibubbles
International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit injects air bubbles inside a sphere of water to demonstrate physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit’s physics challenge and view future experiments here:

Science off the Sphere- Goo
International Space Station Expedition 31 astronaut Don Pettit uses his computer speakers to test the behavior of non-newtonian fluids in the weightless environment aboard the station. Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit's physics challenge and view future experiments here:

Science off the Sphere- Knitting Needles
International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit uses knitting needles and water droplets to demonstrate physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit’s physics challenge and view future experiments here:

Science off the Sphere- Lenses and Vortices
International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit demonstrates physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit's physics challenge and view future experiments here:

Science off the Sphere- Space Soundwaves
International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit demonstrates water oscillations on a speaker in microgravity, and ZZ Top rocks the boat 250 miles above Earth for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit’s physics challenge and view future experiments here:

Science off the Sphere- Space Soundwaves II- Electric Didgeridoo
International Space Station Expedition 31 astronaut Don Pettit uses the station's vacuum cleaner and a shirt to make an electric Didgeridoo to test the behavior of non-newtonian fluids in the weightless environment aboard the station. Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit's physics challenge and view future experiments here:

Science off the Sphere- Spring Theory
NASA astronaut Don Pettit demonstrates how to measure mass in a weightless environment. Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit's physics challenge and view future experiments here:

Science off the Sphere- Thin Film Physics
International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit demonstrates physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit's physics challenge and view future experiments here:

Science off the Sphere- Yo-Yos in Space
NASA astronaut Don Pettit uses his off-duty time to practice his microgravity yo-yo skills. Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit's physics challenge and view experiments here:

ScienceCasts- The Radiation Belt Storm Probes
Most spacecraft try to avoid the Van Allen Belts, two doughnut-shaped regions around Earth filled with 'killer electrons.' This morning NASA launched two heavily-shielded spacecraft directly into the belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes are on a two-year mission to study the Van Allen Belts and to unravel the mystery of their unpredictability.

ScienceCasts- Voyager 1 at the Final Frontier
At the edge of the solar system, Voyager 1 is reporting a sharp increase in cosmic rays that could herald the spacecraft's long-awaited entry into interstellar space.

ScienceCasts- What Exploded Over Russia
Two weeks after an asteroid exploded over Russia's Ural mountains, scientists are making progress understanding the origin and make-up of the unexpected space rock. This week's ScienceCast presents their latest results.

Scientists Answer Top Space Weather Questions Pt 1
NASA scientists answer some common questions about the sun, space weather, and how they affect the Earth. This is part one of a two-part series. It addresses: 1. What is space weather? 2. What are coronal mass ejections? 3. What are solar flares? 4. What are solar energetic particles? 5. What causes flares and CMEs?

Scientists Answer Top Space Weather Questions Pt 2
NASA scientists answer some common questions about the sun, space weather, and how they affect the Earth. This is part two of a two-part series. It addresses: 1. Do all flares and CMEs affect the Earth? 2. What happens when a flare or CME hits the Earth? 3. How quickly can we feel the effects of space weather? 4. Why are there more flares and CMEs happening now?

SDO Provides First Sightings of How a CME Forms
Solar scientists have long known that at the heart of the great explosions of solar material that shoot off the sun -- known as coronal mass ejections or CMEs – lies a twisted kink of magnetic fields known as a flux rope. But no one has known when or where they form. Now, for the first time, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory as captured a flux rope in the very act of formation. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Sentinels of the Heliosphere
Heliophysics describes the study of the Sun, its atmosphere or the heliosphere, and the planets within it as a system. This visualization tours areas from the Sun to the boundary between the Sun and the rest of our Milky Way galaxy. Along the way, we see different regions patrolled by a fleet of satellites that make up NASA's Heliophysics Observatory Telescopes.

ScienceCasts- Solar Max Double Peaked
Something unexpected is happening on the sun. 2013 is supposed to be the year of Solar Max, but solar activity is much lower than expected. At least one leading forecaster expects the sun to rebound with a double-peaked maximum later this year.

ScienceCasts- Total Eclipse of the Sun
Visit for more. Scientists and sky watchers are converging on the northeast coast of Australia, near the Great Barrier Reef, for a total eclipse of the sun.

Shuttle's Toilet Requires Special Training
Mike Massimino helps answer the one question he and other astronauts get asked most often: 'How do you 'go' in space?'

SOFIA’s GREAT Spectrometer Collects First Imagery
The German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies, or GREAT, is a high-resolution far-infrared spectrometer that finely divides and sorts light into component colors for detailed analysis. Mounted on the 2.5-meter infrared telescope installed in the SOFIA flying observatory operated by NASA and German Aerospace Center, GREAT collected its first science spectra on April 6, 2011.

SOFIA Observatory Finishes Open-Door Flight Tests
NASA's SOFIA flying observatory recently completed the second series of envelope-expansion flight tests with its telescope door open. The SOFIA is now fully cleared for astronomy missions at altitudes up to 45,000 feet and telescope elevations up to 58 degrees. After installation and checkout of remaining systems, the airborne observatory will begin infrared astronomy missions late this year.

Solar Filament Eruption, Solar Tsunami - Close-up
Close-up of magnetic solar filament erupting during the early hours of February 24, 2012. Notice closer to the surface the solar atmosphere splits and waves of solar material fan out in opposite directions from the split (almost 248,500 miles long), like tsunami waves. This eruption hurled a coronal mass ejection in the direction of Earth. This video ranges from Feb 23 22:32:44 to Feb 24 04:31:32 UT.

Solar Flares Fire Up Protons, Make Gamma Rays
Solar flares produce gamma rays by several processes, one of which is illustrated here. The energy released in a solar flare rapidly accelerates charged particles. When a high-energy proton strikes matter in the sun's atmosphere and visible surface, the result may be a short-lived particle -- a pion -- that emits gamma rays when it decays.

Space Shuttle Documentary (Narrated by William Shatner)
This feature-length documentary looks at the history of the most complex machine ever built. For 30 years, NASA's space shuttle carried humans to and from space, launched amazing observatories, and eventually constructed the next stop on the road to space exploration.

Space Shuttle Era- Astronaut Support Personnel
Astronauts rely on other astronauts on launch day to help them get rady for liftoff and the misison ahead. The helpful cadre are known formally as Astronaut Support Personnel but are called ASPs or Cape Crusaders.

Space Shuttle Era- External Tank and Solid Rocket
The space shuttle relied on an external tank and a pair of solid rocket boosters to get into orbit and carry out its missions.

Space Shuttle Era- Firing Room
The Firing Room at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida is the nerve center for the countdown and launch of a space shuttle.

Space Shuttle Era- Imagery
Imagery is key to safer shuttle launches.

Space Shuttle Era- Landing Sites
NASA has a roster of runways around the globe that could host a shuttle landing.

Space Shuttle Era- Launch Pads
The launch pads for space shuttles don't fly, but they require meticulous care and precision to make a successful mission.

Space Shuttle Era- Main Engines
Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come easily, though.

Space Shuttle Era- Orbiter Processing Facility
Space shuttles came home to specialized hangars called orbiter processing facilities where workers cleaned them up and prepped them for their next mission.

Spacecraft Image Mashup Shows Galactic Collision
This new composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope shows two colliding galaxies more than a 100 million years after they first impacted each other. The continuing collision of the Antennae galaxies, located about 62 million light years from Earth, has triggered the formation of millions of stars in clouds of dusts and gas.

Spirit's Snapshots of Mars
These views of Mars are just a small sampling from the 124,000 images returned by the Spirit rover

Spitzer's Warm Mission
After more than five years, Spitzer is completing its original assignment to study the cool universe and is now moving on to a new 'warm' career.

Stardust Swoops by Tempel 1
This movie shows what it was like for NASA's Stardust spacecraft to fly by comet Tempel 1. For more information visit:

Starry Night Tango
This simulation, which represents a few billion years of evolution, shows two disk galaxies interacting in a graceful gravitational dance. The color represents the temperature of the gas in the galaxies. The simulation shows how gravity can rearrange the gas and stars in galaxies during these interaction events, fueling the supermassive black holes at the centers of each galaxy. Radiation from the energized black holes can heat up the gas and blow it away, causing the outbursts seen in the animation. NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is discovering some of the most active, powerful galaxies known, which in some cases may have been fueled by such mergers. Video courtesy Volker Springel, Heidelberg University, Germany

State-of-the-Art Particle Physics Detector
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 institutes from 16 countries and organized under United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. It uses the unique environment of space to advance knowledge of the universe and lead to the understanding of the universe's origin.

Stellar Flare Sweeps Up Exoplanet's Atmosphere
The exoplanet HD 189733b lies so near its star that it completes an orbit every 2.2 days. In late 2011, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope found that the planet's upper atmosphere was streaming away at speeds exceeding 300,000 mph. Just before the Hubble observation, NASA's Swift detected the star blasting out a strong X-ray flare, one powerful enough to blow away part of the planet's atmosphere.

STEREO Tracks Solar Storms From Sun To Earth
NASA's STEREO spacecraft and new data processing techniques have succeeded in tracking space weather events from their origin in the sun's corona to impact with the Earth, resolving a 40-year mystery about the structure of the structures that cause space weather: how the structures that impact the Earth relate to the corresponding structures in the solar corona.

STEREO's Orbit From 2006 to 2019
Animation of the inner solar system showing the orbits of the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft, called A & B for their locations after and before Earth's orbital ellipse, covering the time period from shortly after launch on October 25, 2006 through October 2019.

Stretching Webb's Wings
'Behind the Webb' shows how the James Webb Space Telescope's protective sunshield will be folded up inside the rocket that carries it into orbit. Engineers explain to 'Behind the Webb' how the sunshield will be unfurled from a million miles away.

Striking a Solar Balance
This short film explores the vital connection between Earth and the sun. NASA's Glory mission and the Total Irradiance Monitor will continue nearly three decades of solar irradiance measurements. This crucial data will contribute to the long-term climate record.

STS-135 Launch Tribute
Relive the launch and landing for STS-135, which brought the Space Shuttle Program to a close.

STS-135 Webcast
The STS-135 Webcast looks back on the 30-year Space Shuttle Program's accomplishments and ahead to the goals of the final mission with the crew, past shuttle astronauts and some of the people who made it all possible.

Study Finds Surprising Trend in Galaxy Evolution
A study of 544 star-forming galaxies observed by the Keck and Hubble telescopes shows that disk galaxies like our own Milky Way unexpectedly reached their current state long after much of the universe's star formation had ceased. Over the past 8 billion years, the galaxies lose chaotic motions and spin faster as they develop into settled disk galaxies. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Study of Hubble Data Revives 'Dead' Exoplanet
In 2008, Hubble astronomers announced the detection of a giant planet around the bright star Fomalhaut. Recent studies have questioned this conclusion. Now, a reanalysis of Hubble data has revived the 'deceased' exoplanet as a dust-shrouded world with less than twice the mass of Jupiter.

Sun Blasts 6 CMEs in 24 Hour Period
This movie from the chronograph on board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), shows the sun's atmosphere – the corona – from September 17 to September 20. The sun let loose with at least six coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 7 PM ET on September 18, 2011 until 1 PM on September 19.

Sun Grazing Comets as Solar Probes
Astronomers were excited in December 2011, when Comet Lovejoy swept right through the sun's corona with its long tail streaming behind it. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured images of the comet, showing how its long tail was buffeted by systems around the sun, offering scientists a unique way of observing movement as if they'd orchestrated the experiment themselves. Since comet tails have ionized gases, they are also affected by the sun's magnetic field, and can act as tracers of the complex magnetic system higher up in the solar atmosphere.

Supercomputing the Climate
Goddard Space Flight Center is the home of a state-of-the-art supercomputing facility called the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) that is capable of running highly complex models to help scientists better understand Earth's climate.

Suzaku- Intergalactic Prospector
Astronomers used the Suzaku orbiting X-ray observatory, operated jointly by NASA and the Japanese space agency, to discover the largest known reservoir of rare metals in the universe.

Swift and Hubble Probe an Asteroid Crash
In late 2010, images from the University of Arizona's Catalina Sky Survey, a project of NASA's Near Earth Object Observations Program, revealed an outburst from asteroid Scheila. Swift and Hubble then turned to it and caught the remnants of an asteroid smash-up just weeks after the collision occurred. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Swift Monitors a Massive Binary's Clashing Winds
O-type stars are among the most massive and hottest known, pounding their surroundings with intense ultraviolet light and powerful outflows called stellar winds. NASA's Swift and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatories took part in a 2011 campaign to monitor the interaction of two O stars bound together in the same binary system: Cygnus OB2 #9.

Swift's 500th Gamma Ray Burst
On April 13, 2010, NASA's Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer satellite discovered its 500th burst. Swift's main job is to quickly localize each gamma-ray burst (GRB), report its position so that others can immediately conduct follow-up observations, and then study the burst using its X-ray and Ultraviolet/Optical telescopes. Some notable bursts are identified in the video.

Taking Earth's Temperature
How NASA scientists use computer models to study climate change.

Technical Seminar- 'Aviation and the Environment'
Aircraft noise and local air quality concerns are strong constraints on airspace system capacity. These constraints have prompted cancellation, delays, and down-scaling of plans to expand airport capacity over the past decades. What are some of the solutions to help manage growth? Presented April 8, 2008

Technical Seminar- 'Crash Safety'
This seminar addresses the history and successful progress in predicting and improving the crash safety characteristics of vehicles, with particular emphasis on rotary wing aircraft and composite structures. Presented October 17, 2006

Technical Seminar- 'Data Mining for Air Safety'
Anonymous collections of data from the aviation community can sometimes be 'mined' to reveal patterns that can lead to improvements, most often in safety of operations or the aircraft itself. Two of NASA's best data experts discuss advances in extracting information efficiently and reliably from large, distributed, multiple, heterogeneous sources of aviation safety data. Aired September 22, 2006.

Technical Seminar- Electron Beam Forming Fabrication
EBF³ uses a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment to create a molten pool on a metallic substrate. This layer-additive process enables fabrication of parts directly from CAD drawings. The promise of this technology extends far beyond its applicability to low-cost manufacturing and aircraft structural designs. EBF³ could provide a way for astronauts to fabricate structural spare parts and new tools aboard the International Space Station or on the surface of the moon or Mars. Presented May 22, 2008.

Technical Seminar- Evolution of Jet Engine Blade Containment Systems
During normal flight the fan case provides structural support for the inlet/nacelle structure and confines the fan air flow path. In the event of an engine blade failure the case also provides protection to the aircraft structure by containing any separated fragments within the engine environment. NASA is studying a new 'softwall' approach that allows failed blade fragments to penetrate the fan case structure inner wall and be captured within. Presented September 18, 2007.

Technical Seminar- 'Flight Deck Technologies'
Reduced visibility affects the safety and efficiency of nearly all flight operations. As a result, researchers are improving ways to give pilots a vision capability that is independent of actual visibility or weather conditions. Presented January 31, 2008

Technical Seminar- 'Modeling and Optimization in Air Traffic Management'
Traffic Flow Management (TFM) is the efficient organization of traffic flows to meet demand taking into account capacity constraints at airports and in en route airspace. TFM involves thousands of aircraft and several layers of decision-makers scattered between the FAA, Airlines and other users of airspace. This talk explores the complexity of TFM by considering research in four areas: (a) Characteristics of the TFM Network, (b) Aggregate Models for TFM, (c) Relationship between weather, traffic and delay and (d) Optimization. Aired June 26, 2007.

Technical Seminar- 'Entry, Descent and Landing'
The current state-of-the-art in planetary entry, decent, and landing (EDL) systems is derived primarily from a 30 year old technology set developed for the Mars Viking Program, including the heritage spherically blunted conical aeroshell geometry, ablative thermal protection system material, and the supersonic disc-gap-band parachute. Presented November 27, 2006

Technical Seminar- Exploring Hypersonic Flow
NASA Aeronautics is developing a method for 2D and 3D imaging of hypersonic flows, called Nitric Oxide Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (NO-PLIF). NO-PLIF has been used to study basic transition flow physics for scramjet engine inlets and the effects of reaction control system jets, shear layers, wake flowfields, and simulated heat-shield ablation related to high mass Mars entry technology. Presented November 26, 2007.

Technical Seminar- Oil-Free Turbomachinery for Rotorcraft
Rotorcraft engines are among the most demanding applications for conventional oil-lubricated bearings because they must operate with extreme reliability and the highest possible power density. Recent breakthroughs in gas-lubricated oil bearings, high temperature solid lubricants and computer based modeling enable the deployment of revolutionary oil-free turbomachinery systems that weigh less and cost less to operate and maintain. Presented November 4, 2008.

Technical Seminar- 'Progress in Aircraft Noise Research'
Advances in aircraft noise research can be attributed to the development of new technologies and sustained collaboration with industry, universities and government organizations. Emphasis has been given to developing noise prediction methods, diagnostic methods for determining noise sources, and noise reduction methods that are applicable across a wide range of aircraft. Presented October 16, 2007

Technical Seminar- 'Shape Memory Alloys'
Shape memory alloys are a unique group of materials that remember their original shape and return to that shape after being strained. How could the aerospace, automotive, and energy exploration industries benefit from exploiting shape memory behavior? This Aeronautics Technical Seminar was presented August 28, 2008

Technical Seminar- 'Quest for Aircraft Stability and Control'
Testing of full-scale aircraft in flight to validate or improve predictions obtained through wind tunnel testing or CFD calculations is expensive and time-consuming. Being able to test aircraft stability and control using real-time onboard computations is now within reach and has far-reaching implications for efficient flight testing, control system design, aircraft health monitoring, pilot training, aircraft fleet maintenance, and safety. Aired May 18, 2007.

Technical Seminar- 'Thermal Protection Systems'
Hypersonic vehicles differ significantly from rocket-based vehicles in their architecture and mission. The high temperature gradients and structural loads are 'Achilles heels.' This presentation discusses recent advances in thermal protection systems and hot structures for hypersonic vehicles and the technical challenges that need to be overcome. Aired March 20, 2007.

Technical Seminar- 'Towards Intelligent Flight Control'
The idea behind intelligent flight control is to provide more autonomy in an aircraft cockpit. Such systems must allow for all different kinds of situations and for human factors that occur in loss-of-control situations. The NextGen aircraft concepts and designs currently studied elevate the complexity required in flight control designs. NASA is studying several intelligent control architectures including: (a) direct and hybrid adaptive control architectures; (b) intelligent flight planning and guidance architectures; (c) data-based optimal control architectures for jet engine combustion control; (d) an adaptive critic-based trajectory generator for long-duration missions; and (e) intelligent control architecture for ESTOL vehicles; and (f) payload-directed navigation and guidance architecture. Presented June 30, 2008.

Technical Seminar- 'Trajectory-Based Operations'
A safe and efficient air traffic management system is vital to the nation's economy. This seminar explores the concepts and current research into air traffic control concepts that focus on more dimensions of flight. Presented January 16, 2007

Technology's Role in NASA's Future
NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun talks to NASA managers about the vital role technology research and development will play in NASA's future. Braun discusses how NASA will use new technologies to gain knowledge and capabilities for future exploration of the universe and our home planet.

Temperature Data- 1880-2011
Global temperatures have warmed significantly since 1880, the beginning of what scientists call the 'modern record.' At this time, the coverage provided by weather stations allowed for essentially global temperature data. As greenhouse gas emissions from energy production, industry and vehicles have increased, temperatures have climbed, most notably since the late 1970s. In this animation of temperature data from 1880-2011, reds indicate temperatures higher than the average during a baseline period of 1951-1980, while blues indicate lower temperatures than the baseline average.

Ten Cool Things from the First Year of LRO
To celebrate one year in orbit, here are ten cool things already observed by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Note that the stories here are just a small sample of what the LRO team has released and barely touch on the major scientific accomplishments of the mission. Visit to read about these images and many more!

Testing the Webb Mirror Segments
Engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center test the robotic-like fixture that will place the primary mirror segments of the Webb Telescope onto the telescopes back plane.

The Camera That Saved Hubble
Two of the unsung heros of NASA's Hubble mission are a camera and the team from JPL that put it all together.

The Cloud Makers
This segment provides an introduction to aerosols: their varied sources, brief lifetimes and erratic behavior. Glory's APS will help researchers determine the global distribution of aerosol particles. This unique instrument will unravel the microphysical properties of aerosols, and will shed light on the chemical composition of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and clouds.

The Day NASA's Fermi Dodged a 1.5-ton Bullet
On March 29, 2012, the science team for NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope learned that a defunct Cold-War spy satellite would pass too close for comfort on April 4. The two spacecraft were expected to occupy the same point in space within 30 milliseconds of each other, which meant that Fermi had to get out of the way.

The Hubble Legacy- Exoplanets
Three astronomers in NASA Goddard's Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory discuss how Hubble's coronagraph and resulting images have helped scientists find planets orbiting distant stars.

The Hubble Legacy- Galaxy Evolution
Three astronomers explain how Hubble acts like a time machine by detecting which galaxies are moving toward and away from us.

The Leading Edge - Green Aviation
What is NASA doing to make air transportation quieter, cleaner and more economical? This NASA TV panel discussion and audience Q&A features Fay Collier, project manager for NASA Aeronautics' Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project, and Carl Burleson, acting deputy associate administrator for policy, plans and environment at the Federal Aviation Administration.

The Mars Chamber
The Mars chamber is a box about the size of a refrigerator that re-creates the temperatures, pressures, and atmosphere of the Martian surface, essentially creating a Mars environment on Earth! Scientists and engineers use this chamber to test experiments on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite--a fully-functioning chemistry lab aboard the Curiosity Mars rover.

The Moon's Permanent Shadows
Deep in the craters of the moon's south pole lurk permanently shadowed regions: areas that have not seen sunlight in more than two billion years. Now, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is shedding a new light on some of our satellite's darkest mysteries.

The Ocean- Driving Force for Weather and Climate
The Ocean is essential to life on Earth. Most of Earth’s water is stored in the ocean. Although 40 percent of Earth’s population lives within, or near coastal regions, the ocean impacts people everywhere. Without the ocean, our planet would be uninhabitable. This animation helps to convey the importance of Earth’s oceanic processes as one component of Earth’s interrelated systems.

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes
The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and astronauts. The mission will explore space weather -- changes in Earth's space environment caused by the sun -- which can affect our technology.

The Sky at Night, Pluto Revealed - Documentary
The Sky at Night, Pluto Revealed - Documentary

The Smog Bloggers
Has pollen got your sneezing? Wondering what's causing that mysterious afternoon haze? How do you find out what's in the air you are breathing? For the thousands of people who visit the University of Maryland Baltimore County's 'Smog Blog' each day, the answer is just a web click away.Smog Bloggers combine laser measurements with NASA satellite data to paint a daily air quality picture.

The Solar Cycle
Although it may look unchanging from the ground, the sun actually has a long-term pattern of change called the sunspot cycle. During one cycle the number of sunspots, and solar activity, increases and then decreases again. This process is driven by the flipping of the sun's poles.

The Surprising Power of Solar Storms
NASA-funded researchers say a flurry of solar storms from March 8-10, 2012 dumped enough energy in Earth's upper atmosphere (our thermosphere absorbed 26 billion kWh of energy) to power every residence in New York City for two years as recorded by the SABER instrument onboard NASA's TIMED satellite. This energy temporarily increases the drag on low-orbiting satellites, which decreases their lifetime by bringing them closer to the day of re-entry. There is a plus side; extra drag helps clear space junk out of Earth orbit.

The Temperature Puzzle
All of the events of the past decade - all of our memories -- have something in common. They all took place during the hottest decade ever recorded since humans began keeping temperature records about 150 years ago.

This World Is Black and White
A look at how the historic DaisyWorld model illustrates concepts like environmental feedback loops and albedo.

Three Years of SDO Data--Narrated
This version of Three Years of SDO Data is extended, and narrated by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center heliophysicist Alex Young. He highlights many interesting aspects of the video and points out several of the single-frame events that appear in it. In the three years since it first provided images of the sun in the spring of 2010, NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has had virtually unbroken coverage of the sun's rise toward solar maximum, the peak of solar activity in its regular 11-year cycle. This video shows those three years of the sun at a pace of two images per day. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Time lapse- Mobile Launcher Moves
The mobile launcher returned from Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida following two weeks of structural and other testing. The 355-foot-tall structure is to be used by the Space Launch System.

Tiny Galaxies Help Fermi Address a Big Mystery
No one knows what dark matter is, but it constitutes 80 percent of the matter in our universe. By studying numerous dwarf galaxies -- satellite systems that orbit our own Milky Way galaxy -- NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has produced some of the strongest limits yet on the nature of the hypothetical particles suspected of making up dark matter.

Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012
On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both professional and amateur astronomers gathered to watch. During a solar eclipse one can see – using appropriate instruments to protect the eyes since you should never look at the sun directly – dim structures around the edges of the sun. These structures are the sun's atmosphere, the corona, which extends beyond the more easily seen surface, known as the photosphere. In modern times, we know that the corona is constantly on the move. Made of electrified gas, called plasma, the solar material dances in response to huge magnetic fields on the sun. Structural changes in these magnetic fields can also give rise to giant explosions of radiation called solar flares, or expulsions of solar material called coronal mass ejections, CMEs – which make the corona a particularly interesting area to study.

Transformed X-48C Takes to the Air on First Flight
The remotely operated X-48C Blended Wing Body aircraft lifts off Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on its first test flight Aug. 7, 2012. The sub-scale technology demonstrator, modified from the prior X-48B configuration, began a new flight test phase in a partnership between NASA and The Boeing Company's Phantom Works research and technology division.

TIROS-1- The Forecast Revolution Begins
April 1, 1960: the world's first experimental weather satellite, TIROS-1, was launched. Within three months, TIROS-1 generated over 23,000 images of earth and its atmosphere, providing an unprecedented perspective from above and revolutionizing weather forecasting. This is an historical overview of TIROS-1 and its legacy and, ultimately, the birth of remote earth observation as we know it today.

Tsunami Makes Waves in More Than Just the Ocean
GPS technology helps scientists track tsunamis and improve future warning systems.

Ultra-high Definition View of 2012 Venus Transit
Over a six-hour period on June 5-6 2012, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) collected images in many wavelengths of one of the rarest predictable solar events: the transit of Venus across the face of the sun. These transits occur in pairs eight years apart that are separated from each other by 105 or 121 years. The last transit was in 2004 and the next will not happen until 2117.

Unlocking Jupiter's Mysteries
NASA's Juno mission at Jupiter - unlocking the secrets of the solar system.

Unprecedented Arctic Ozone Loss in 2011
A NASA-led study found that Earth's protective ozone layer above the Arctic thinned to the lowest levels ever observed in early 2011.

Van Allen Probes - The Instruments
Dr. David Sibeck explains the instruments on the twin Van Allen Probes (formerly the Radiation Belt Storm Probes, RBSP). The Van Allen Probes will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charged particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and astronauts. The mission also will allow researchers to understand fundamental radiation and particle acceleration processes throughout the universe.

Van Gogh Sun
Nicholeen Viall, a solar scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center creates images of the sun reminiscent of Van Gogh, but it's science, not art. The color of each pixel contains a wealth of information about the 12-hour history of cooling and heating at that spot on the sun. That history holds clues to what drives the temperature and movements of the sun's atmosphere, or corona.

Vesta's Coat of Many Colors
This animation of Vesta is made from images taken with Dawn's framing camera. Many of the images were taken at different viewing angles to provide stereo for use in determining the topography. Other images were taken through special infrared and visible light filters in the camera. These infrared and visible light images have been combined and represented in colors that highlight the nature of the minerals on Vesta's surface. Green shows the amount of iron. Scientists have not yet determined the composition indicated by the other colors.

VLBI- Using Quasars to Measure the Earth
VLBI, or Very Long Baseline Interferometry, is a technique that uses multiple radio telescopes to very precisely measure the Earth's orientation. It was originally invented back in the 1960s to take better pictures of quasars, but scientists soon found out that if you threw the process in reverse, you could actually learn a lot about the Earth! Learn more about VLBI in this video!

Voyager - 35 Years Later
This video drops in on mission control for NASA's Voyager spacecraft as Voyager 1 sends back data from the far reaches of our solar system.

Voyager 1 Explores the 'Magnetic Highway'
This set of animations show NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft exploring a new region in our solar system called the 'magnetic highway.' In this region, the sun's magnetic field lines are connected to interstellar magnetic field lines, allowing particles from inside the heliosphere to zip away and particles from interstellar space to zoom in.

Voyager 2 Observes Energetic Electrons
This animation shows the Voyager 2 observations of energetic electrons. Voyager 2 detected a dramatic drop of the flux of electrons as it left the sector region. The intense flux came back as soon as Voyager 2 was inside the sector region. Energetic particles have a hard time “navigating” through the sea of bubbles. The bubbles act like traps for these particles. When particles escape the sea of bubbles and access the field lines that connect back to the Sun, they quickly escape along the magnetic field lines, very much like entering a highway. These observations were the unexpected signature of the new scenario.

Voyager Finds Magnetic Foam at Solar System's Edge
The Voyager satellites are now traveling through the outer edge of the solar system, called the heliosheath. Using a computer model based on Voyager data, scientists have shown that the sun's magnetic field becomes bubbly in this region due to reconnection. Because of this, cosmic rays must slowly work their way through the magnetic foam before continuing on toward the sun.

Watching Earth Breathe
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring gas in our atmosphere. View the seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide and the increase of carbon dioxide every year due to human activity.

We Are the Explorers
Why do we explore? Simply put, it is part of who we are, and it is something we have done throughout our history. In NASA’s new video, “We Are the Explorers,” we take a look at that tradition of reaching for things just beyond our grasp and how it is helping us lay the foundation for our greatest journeys ahead.

Webb FAQ
Astrophysicist Dr. Amber Straughn takes you on a quick journey of facts and images to explain what the James Webb Space Telescope will tell us about the cosmos

Webb Mirrors Arrive at NASA Goddard
James Webb Space Telescope's secondary mirror, along with a primary mirror segment arrived at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., on Nov. 5, 2012.

Webb Telescope- Evolution of the Universe
Galaxies congregate in clusters and superclusters, and at larger scales superclusters seem to blend into chains and filaments that span vast distances. This so-called cosmic web seems to be the foundation on which the universe is built. Webb will explore how stars, young galaxies and dark matter worked to create large-scale cosmic structure.

Webb Telescope- Planetary Evolution
Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots where the youngest stars and planets are forming

What's It's Like to Land on Mars
This video steps viewers through a portion of the choreography needed to land NASA's Curiosity rover on Mars. It starts with a computer simulation from NASA's Eyes on the Solar System program and uses actual images from Curiosity's Mars Descent Imager. It ends with a high-resolution color image from Curiosity's Mast Camera.

When Neutron Stars Collide
State-of-the-art supercomputer models show that merging neutron stars can power a short gamma-ray burst.

Why Are We Seeing So Many Sungrazing Comets?
Before 1979, there were less than a dozen known sungrazing comets. As of December 2012, we know of 2,500. Why did this number increase? With solar observatories like SOHO, STEREO, and SDO, we have not only better means of viewing the sun, but also the comets that approach it. SOHO allows us to see smaller, fainter comets closer to the sun than we have ever been able to see before. Even though many of these comets do not survive their journey past the sun, they survive long enough to be observed, and be added to our record of sungrazing comets.

WISE Finds Few Brown Dwarfs Close to Home
NASA's WISE telescope has discovered that there are fewer brown dwarfs in our solar neighborhood than previously thought.

WISE Finds Fewer Asteroids near Earth
New observations by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, show there are significantly fewer near-Earth asteroids in the mid-size range than previously thought.

WMAP- From the Archives
On June 20, 2012, Dr. Charles Bennett and the WMAP science team were awarded the 2012 Gruber Cosmology Prize. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) was launched by NASA to measure the universe’s oldest light. By making precise measurements of temperature patterns in this light, WMAP has answered many longstanding questions about the universe's age, composition and development.

X-1 Flight
X-1 launch from the B-29 mothership during the mid-1950s. The mission of the X-1 was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier'.

X-1 Launch and Landing
X-1E launch from a B-29 and landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California.circa 1955-1958

X-2 Flight
X-2 high-altitude launch from B-50 circa 1955-1956.

X-3 Flight
X-3 preflight calibration, test flight and landing circa 1954. The slender, jet-powered X-3, built by Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California, tested such new materials as titanium and collected data on stability and control, pressure distribution, and flight loads.

X-3 Supersonic Research Flight
Mid-1950s NACA X-3 supersonic research flight. The slender, jet-powered X-3, built by Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California, tested such new materials as titanium and collected data on stability and control, pressure distribution, and flight loads.

X-4 Bantam Flight
Historic footage of the semi-tailless X-4 Bantam research aircraft flight testing by the NACA at Edwards AFB.

X-15 Flight
1960s X-15 air launch from B-52 mothership

X-15 Landing
1960s X-15 landing. Three X-15s made 199 flights during a research program which lasted from 1960 through 1968. It was a daring, yet highly successful program that resulted in hundreds of technical reports.

X-24A Landing
X-24A landing on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base circa 1970.

X-24B Flight
1975 X-24B in flight and landing - air drop from mothership

X-29 Views
During the late 1980s two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies.

X-31 Herbst Turn
The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an airplane with a significant advantage over conventional fighters.

X-31 Post Stall Maneuver
The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an airplane with a significant advantage over conventional fighters.

X-40A Sixth Free Flight
Lift off and release of the X-40A space maneuvering vehicle in its sixth flight at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California.

X-ray Nova Reveals New Black Hole
An X-ray outburst caught by NASA's Swift on Sept. 16, 2012, resulted from a flood of gas plunging toward a previously unknown black hole. Gas flowing from a sun-like star collects into a disk around the black hole. Normally, this gas would steadily spiral inward. But in this system, named Swift J1745-26, the gas collects for decades before suddenly surging inward.

The YF-12 'Blackbird' was an experimental fighter-interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12 aircraft. In Air Force flight tests on May 1, 1965, the YF-12 set a speed record of 2,070.101 miles per hour and an altitude record of 80,258 feet.

The X-Ray Sun Over 5.5 Years
Behold five and a half years worth of full-sun observations from XRT. A dramatic illustration of the solar cycle, this movie begins about one year before the first reversed-polarity sunspot ushered in the current cycle on January 8, 2008. The solar cycle is a periodic variation in the Sun's activity that is caused by the gradual 'tangling' and eventual reversal of its magnetic field.